What is marketing, really?

Justin Bieber Calvin Klein

Marketing in theory means to enter the market. In practice marketing needs to find a fit with everybody else in an organization and to satisfy their and customer needs together. Therefore its definition changes depending on the organization. No matter what we want marketing to be, marketing has certain constants which can not be changed. Below are lists of marketing constants organized in four categories:

1) Marketing methods – How marketers can conceptualize their goals and resulting actions.
2) Customer interactions – How customers interact with the brand and company. Products are excluded.
3) Types of content – How customers experience the content.
4) Marketing management terms – How marketers solve their problems. BEM Values and Value Content are excluded.

Marketers should be evaluated well if they exit or do not support all these methods and activities. These lists are not final, are very generic, and serve as an example only.

Marketing methods

Above the line (ATL) / Mass marketing – Using mass media to market.
Activism – Marketing with a goal of hierarchical or social change.
Account-based marketing – Focusing on one individual at a time.
Advertising / Paid media – Purchasing ad space in third party media.
Affiliate marketing – Paying affiliates with revenue share to market for you.
Ambush marketing – Ambush and exploit other brand’s marketing project.
Below the line (BTL) marketing – Marketing that does not use mass media.
Blitz marketing – Prioritizing extremely short term results.
Brand marketing – Prioritize building a brand.
Call-to-action (CTA) marketing – Direct response digital marketing, elicits an action.
Catalog marketing – Marketing by being present in party catalogs, directors, and websites.
Channel marketing – Motivating your sales channels to market for you.
Conversion / Performance marketing – Digital marketing focused only on short term ROI.
Community marketing – Prioritizing building a community between customers.
Competition / Contest marketing – Marketing by organizing competitions.
Content marketing – Offering relevant content to customers on top of products.
Differential marketing – Creating different content and campaigns for different customer groups.
Direct marketing – Marketing direct to customers offline.
Direct response marketing – Direct marketing designed to elicit a response from the customer.
Disruptive marketing – Creating disruptive innovation through marketing.
Database marketing – Use of own or purchased databases to find and market to customers.
Door-to-door (D2D) marketing – Organizing individual marketers that visit customers at their premises.
Drip marketing – Nurturing a customer with a series of messages, emails, chats.
Email marketing – Marketing with newsletters and personalized emails.
Employee marketing – Marketing to employees, especially sales.
Evangelism – Motivating or hiring individuals who act as evangelists, early spokepersons for the product.
Event marketing – Marketing with online and offline events.
Exclusivity / Luxury / Limited-edition marketing – Marketing targeting most profitable customer groups.
Field marketing – Marketing at a specific area, preferably where customers spend more time.
Freemium / sample marketing – Offering free features or samples.
Guerrilla marketing – Non-traditional media and projects.
Grassroots marketing – Building a brand first within a small group of customers.
Growth hacking – Finding a marketing method which can drastically increase sales in the short term.
Inbound / Pull marketing – Marketing with content customer wants to see.
Influencer marketing – Sponsoring or motivating individuals to market for you.
Long-tail marketing – Marketing to niche groups and sub-cultures.
Loyalty marketing – Prioritizing keeping current customers over finding new ones.
Marketing automation / Algorithmic marketing – Use of algorithms to increase marketing efficiency.
Multichannel / Integrated / Omnichanel / Crosschannel marketing – Marketing coordinated over many channels.
Native advertising – Paying to publishing content marketing on third party media.
Negative marketing – Prioritizing damaging competitors brand.
Nurturing – Gradually informing and motivating a customer.
Outbound / Push / Interruption marketing – Marketing with content customer does not want to see.
Out-of-home (OOH) marketing – Advertising in public spaces.
Partnership / Affinity / Alliance / Horizontal marketing – Create marketing partnerships with other companies.
Pay-per-click (PPC) marketing – Advertising billed per click.
Permission marketing – Motivate customers to give you a permission to contact them.
Personal branding – Promoting an person with a goal that the company revenue increases.
Personalized marketing – Customization of products to the needs of a single customer.
Pont-of-sale (POS) marketing – Marketing at the point of sale.
Product bundling – Marketing more products as one product.
Product placement – Organic and paid placement of products in third party content.
Promotional marketing – Marketing with promotions, coupons, discounts.
Proximity marketing – Marketing to customers in a specific small area.
Public relationship (PR) / Earned media – Cooperation with press with a goal to elicit more free coverage.
Referral marketing – Reewarding customers for referring new customers.
Relationship marketing – Prioritizing long-term relationship with customers.
Recruitment marketing – Marketing with a purpose of finding the best job candidate.
Retargeting – Prioritizing existing customers over finding new ones.
Scarcity marketing – Limiting the offering of a product in order to increase the demand.
Search engine marketing (SEM) / Search engine optimization (SEO) – Prioritizing higher position in searches.
Seasonal marketing – Short term marketing strategies related to repeating events.
Social media marketing – Marketing on social media.
Sponsorship marketing – Sponsoring third party events, individuals, teams, and other projects.
Storytelling – Prioritizing explaining the brand and product through a story / narrative.
Telemarketing – Cold calling customers.
Transactional marketing – Prioritizing efficiency of a single sale.
User-generated marketing – Motivating customers to create marketing content and projects for your products.
Vertical marketing – Marketing the same product differently for different types of customers.
Viral marketing – Creating content which is shared by customers.
Word-of-mouth (WOM) marketing – Motivating customers to recommend you.

Customer interactions

3D animations / renders
Annual reports
Blog posts
Branded clothing
Branded vehicles
Business cards
Customer recommendation
Customer support
Digital advertising (AdWords, Facebook, banners…)
Digital press article
Direct mail
Direct SMS
Directory listing
Fairs & trade shows
Gadgets & gifts
Group / individual training
In-monobrand-store experience
In-store experience
Loyalty cards
Magazine / newspaper / print advertising
Mobile apps
Newsletter campaign
Online videos
Phone call
Press articles
Press releases
Product demonstration
Product placement
Radio advertising
Recruitment advertising
Research papers
Social media (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Wikipedia…)
Software and files
Sponsorship branding (sports, arts, non-profit…)
TV advertising
User-generated content
Video games
White papers

Types of content

Abstract / Art / Design / Fashion / Mood
Call to action (do this now)
Case study / Testimonial
Curated / Shared
Discussion / Comments (many discuss one topic)
Humor / Sarcasm / Funny / Cute / Gross
Informative / News
Instructional / Educational
Interview (one asks, other answers)
Motivational (you can do this)
Narrative / story (exposition, climax, resolution)
Negative (someone else is bad)
Opinion / Review (authority)
Research report (formal)
Sales pitch (problem & solution)
Technical specs
Wizard / Calculator / Compare / Search (features)

Marketing management terms

A/B testing – Live tests of content and products.
Agile – Processes which allow frequent tests and changes based on test results.
Application programming interface (API) – Access to third party software or data.
Artificial intelligence – Algorithms which personalize products and content.
Attribution – Analysis which interactions lead to desired customer action.
Big data – Data available for analysis, not yet analyzed and used in decisions.
Brand awareness – Ability of customers to remember and recall the brand or product.
Budget – Marketing budget necessary to calculate ROMI.
Churn – Subscribing customer loss.
Clickthrough – Depth at which customer follows the journey.
Content management system (CMS) – Cloud that manages customer content.
Conversion – Metric for revenue or lead generation resulting from digital interactions.
Curation – Process of publishing and recommending third party content on your media.
Customer / User experience – Experience of a single customer across all interactions with the brand and company.
Customer acquisition cost (CAC) – Total marketing and sales costs for one customer.
Customer decision – Main decision marketing wants to motivate, not only purchase.
Customer journey – All interactions that a customer took.
Customer lifecycle – Conceptualization of a customer relationship from the begining to the end.
Customer relationship management (CRM) – Method that prioritizes a complete relationship with the customer.
Demographics – Standardized minimal consumer information.
Digital asset management (DAM) – Cloud that manages employee content.
Dynamic / Static content – Dynamic is personalized, Static is not personalized content.
Evergreen / Legacy content – Content which does not loose relevance.
Expert system – Artificial intelligence that makes decisions based on data and fixed predefined rules.
Friction – Negative customer experience.
Gamification – Adding game elements to the customer experience.
Geotargeting – Personalizing content based on customer location.
Key performance indicator (KPI) – Quantifiable goals for projects, tasks, individuals, or teams to reach.
Lifetime value (LTV) – Total revenue per customer.
Machine learning – Artificial intelligence that designs its own rules based on analysis of data.
Management decision – Internal decision which requires information and talent for its effectiveness.
Marketing & sales funnel – Visualization of a customer journey.
MarTech – Marketing technologies.
Net Promoter Score (NPS) – Standardized customer satisfaction metric.
Personalization – Customization of content or product for a single customer.
Pre, during, post sale – Division of interactions in three phases relative to the purchase.
Predictive analytics – Artificial intelligence which predicts customer or market behavior.
Primary research – Creating data.
Product lifecycle – Conceptualization of a product relevance from the begining to the end.
Programmatic advertising – Advertising managed by artificial intelligence.
Return on marketing investment (ROMI) – Ratio between revenue from marketing leads and marketing budget.
Secondary research – Analyzing third party data.
Segmentation – Organization of customers in groups.
Unique selling point (USP) – Temporary benefit which ensured one or more sales.

Written by: Nikola Tosic
Publishing date: 21 May 2018